Positive psychological definition of happiness
Dacher Keltner, professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley: I believe that understanding happiness means not starting with emotions, positive emotions bring positive psychological feelings, and negative emotions can lead to negative psychological feelings.
Darwin keenly pointed out that compassion is our most enduring instinct and is very important to human evolution.
Scientifically speaking, compassion not only links the brain’s old cortex and caring for others, but also genetically shapes the posterior oxytocin receptor in the nervous system.
On a realistic scale, the offspring of human beings are more vulnerable than other mammals on the planet. The descendants of many animals are very capable of surviving in life. For example, they can sit up and eat quickly, and it takes time for human offspring to do this.thing.
Compassion is not only a product of evolution, but also a joy to us. We are happy by giving, not asking.
I have found that social inequality will reduce people’s compassion, so when we discuss compassion, we must fully consider the surrounding social environment and scenarios.
Jennifer Goetz (Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Minster, USA): Being helpful, caring and selfless is often considered to run counter to evolution.
In a cruel, competitive society, “natural selection” is often interpreted as “survival of the fittest”.
However, unlike our daily life experience, we are not only very caring for others, but even willing to sacrifice for others.
I believe that compassion has evolved into an optimal way to promote cooperation and protect basic functions such as the weak.
The central point in analyzing this evolution is that compassion as an adaptive mechanism should be one of the universal traits of human beings.
In Chinese society, reciprocity is very important. We can do good things for others, but at another specific time, we will benefit ourselves.
This kind of synergistic culture is also a value that further affects compassion.
And this kind of compassion can help us survive better.
The problem I want experts to say about evolution is that compassion should not cause too much, for some reason.
This also shows that it is limited.
For example, if you need money, many times, I can’t give you all the money.
Eunkook Mark Suh, a professor at Yonsei University in South Korea: According to the survey results, the level of happiness of citizens varies greatly from country to country.
Although many social variables, such as income, fairness, and security, can often explain these differences, different beliefs about happiness in different cultural backgrounds also play a significant role.
For example, the study found that the level of well-being is closely related to the popularity of “happy people” in various cultural contexts.
Another example is that culture affects people’s recognition of the idea that happiness is a zero-sum game. It also affects people’s external, obvious and intrinsic, hidden two opposites.
If the culture in which you live believes that happiness is a limited supply, then people will feel that the supply of happiness is limited and is a zero-sum game.
If your culture believes that happiness is not a good thing, you are unlikely to behave in front of everyone as a happy person (happy and happy in English is the same word).
As everyone knows, a happy secret is that you can express your happiness and render it around, and you will become happier.
Wang Dengfeng (Director of the Center for Personality and Social Psychology at Peking University): Western culture focuses on individual success. When encountering difficulties, it is easy to open the road, in other words, to take your own path and let others go unhappy.
When the Chinese want to achieve their goals, there may be other people who feel unhappy, but the model is that they are happy and others are happy.
When you let the first unhappy person happy, it is clear that your goal is still ahead, there will be a second, the third person is not happy, then what to do, we must try to take care of their emotions.
What we see from it is that, in terms of the concept of cultural dimension, the way Western pursuit of success is very masculine, and China is very feminine.
Chinese culture pays attention to goodness, while people also have selfish behaviors. The Chinese pay attention to self-discipline and correct this behavior.
When China encounters problems, it is first of all mediation. When there is no way, it is to go to court.
The Chinese will say that even if I win, the loser will definitely find a way to clean up me, so it is best not to go to court.
In Hong Kong, when many entrepreneurs encounter disputes, they must try to mediate many times. Litigation is a last resort.
But Western entrepreneurs go to court directly when they encounter problems.
Yue Xiaodong (Professor of Psychology, City University of Hong Kong): My understanding of happiness is simple. Happiness is a habit of developing a positive psychology. It is your constant cultivation of your own mentality.
Some people sometimes do things to perfection, always look at their unhappy aspects, more than their happy aspects.
Over time, it leads to an imitation, and it is alive and boring.
So we have to develop a positive mentality. I have a course in positive psychology in Hong Kong, and I will arrange homework for everyone to think about three things that are happy today before going to bed every day.
If you give three times a day, one semester, you will see that your happiness is far greater than your unhappiness, and finally let you see the meaning of your life.
If we can choose something happy every day and ignore some unhappy things, it will be very different in a year. It will be very happy in ten or twenty years.
Xu Jingan (famous cultural person): China has now become the world’s second largest economy and has reached a new turning point.
Further deepening reform requires new ideas.
My claim is to maximize happiness and build a happy China.
Putting happiness first, now people’s livelihood issues, public service issues, and differences between the rich and the poor are managed to solve problems.
Happiness China not only requires changing the evaluation target, but also changes the subject of evaluation. It is not only for the government to evaluate the government, but also for the people to evaluate it themselves.
At the same time, the transcendence of the goal of maximizing happiness depends on the change of social behavior. We do not hinder the gradual change of our whole society from the creation of a happy community, a happy family, a happy enterprise.